Appeal from the District Court of Cass County, East Central Judicial District, the Honorable Douglas R. Herman, Judge.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Kapsner, Justice
[¶1] W.K. appeals an order for involuntary hospitalization and treatment and an order to involuntarily treat with medication. The orders committed W.K. to the North Dakota State Hospital for up to ninety days and allowed the hospital to treat her with medication during that time.
We hold the district court was clearly erroneous to find clear and convincing evidence supported the orders. We reverse both orders.
[¶2] W.K.'s brother, M.K., petitioned for her involuntary commitment, asserting W.K. was mentally ill and, if she were not hospitalized and treated, a serious risk of harm existed. The petition alleged: W.K. had been hospitalized for mental illness on four previous occasions; she recently left a mental health facility in Maryland against medical advice; she lost custody of her child due to mental illness; she does not perform activities of daily living (ADLs); she is experiencing hallucinations and delusions; and she is a potential danger to herself. After M.K. filed the petition, the Cass County state's attorney requested an investigation of the allegations and an evaluation of W.K.'s mental health.
[¶3] A representative from Southeast Human Services Center visited M.K.'s apartment, where W.K. was staying at the time. The representative reported W.K. was "sleeping on the couch in the living room. She is still in her pajamas at 4 [p.m.] and has not performed [ADLs] this day." The representative also reported W.K. denied having any mental health issues or symptoms, and "[s]he is angry with her family for invading her rights." The representative concluded W.K. "has no insight [in]to her situation and it is apparent she is having disturbed thought processes. . . . She can not [sic] plan for how she would take care of her own basic needs if [M.K.] was not caring for her." The representative reported W.K. met the criteria for involuntary placement at the State Hospital. In response to the representative's report, the district court ordered an expert examination. Dr. William Pryatel, a licensed psychiatrist at the State Hospital, examined W.K. Following the exam, Dr. Pryatel created a report of his findings and filed a request to treat with medication with the district court.
[¶4] The district court held a treatment hearing on October 20, 2009. W.K. testified that, on the day the Cass County social services representative visited M.K.'s apartment, she had showered and was simply sitting on the couch watching television. W.K. stated she left the apartment only a few times during the first few weeks of her visit to Fargo because she did not have keys to the apartment. W.K. denied suffering from hallucinations or delusions and testified she generally performs her ADLs.
[¶5] W.K. testified she has no history of mental illness beyond suffering an anxiety attack in 1999. After the attack, W.K. stated she took the prescription drug Risperdal for about four months and attended group therapy. W.K. testified that, prior to coming to Fargo, she was in a mental health facility in Maryland because her sister called social workers and falsely told them she had complained her food was poisoned. W.K. stated the doctors at the facility did not diagnose her with mental illness or treat her with medication. She testified the doctors ruled out all problems, except possible financial issues with her family. At the time W.K. was admitted to the Maryland facility, she stated her sister was paying her rent. When she returned to her apartment after being discharged from the facility, W.K. testified she found her roommates had changed the locks. She stated M.K. then invited her to visit him in Fargo, which is why she was staying at M.K.'s apartment when he filed the petition. She testified M.K. filed the petition because of family discord, not because she is mentally ill.
[¶6] In addition, W.K. testified she lost custody of her thirteen-year- old daughter in April 2008. W.K. stated that, shortly before losing custody, she had resigned from her job as a licensed practical nurse to pursue gospel songwriting and to work on a CD. W.K. testified she lost custody because her sister called social workers and falsely told them she was not providing for her daughter, and that she had threatened her daughter so she could continue to preach God's word without interference. However, W.K. stated she always provided for her daughter even after resigning from her job through savings and child support. W.K. stated she continues to pursue a gospel songwriting career and has federal copyrights on her songs. She testified she goes to a recording studio in Maryland, which she pays for with her savings.
[¶7] M.K. also testified at the hearing. He stated W.K. called him after her release from the Maryland facility and told him she was locked out of her apartment, at which time he invited her to visit him in Fargo. During the month W.K. stayed at his apartment, M.K. testified she left only three times and watched television and The Lion King constantly. He also stated W.K. often stared blankly into space and laughed to herself. M.K. testified W.K. slept on the couch instead of a bed and frequently stayed up until the early morning listening to gospel music on the internet. M.K. stated he filed the petition because of this "awkward" behavior.
[¶8] Dr. Pryatel testified he interviewed W.K. and concluded she is mentally ill with schizophrenia, paranoid type. Dr. Pryatel noted Risperdal, the medication W.K. testified she used following an anxiety attack in 1999, is typically prescribed for schizophrenia. Dr. Pryatel also testified he understands W.K. was hospitalized for mental illness in 2004, received involuntary medication at that time, and improved greatly thereafter. He stated W.K. has paranoia and believes her siblings have it out for her. Dr. Pryatel also testified W.K. is grandiose because she believes she is going to make a lot of money in her gospel music career.
[¶9] Dr. Pryatel stated he was not able to review W.K.'s medical records from the Maryland mental health facility where she recently stayed, because W.K. would not give permission for their release. Dr. Pryatel testified he primarily based his findings on information provided by M.K., as well as the Cass County social services report. He also stated that, during the three days W.K. spent at the State Hospital prior to the hearing, she performed her ADLs. Dr. Pryatel testified W.K. is not suicidal and does not have violent tendencies towards others.
[¶10] Dr. Pryatel testified there was "likely" a serious risk of harm to W.K. if she did not receive treatment. Without treatment, Dr. Pryatel stated W.K. was likely to suffer a substantial deterioration of her physical health, because she is unable to provide food, clothing, and shelter for herself and does not complete her ADLs. Dr. Pryatel also stated W.K. was likely to suffer a substantial deterioration of her mental health, because "the natural tendency of the schizophrenia is to get worse" if no treatment is received. He also testified W.K.'s failure to take care of her physical health would aggravate her mental health problems. Dr. Pryatel stated inpatient hospitalization and medication were necessary to provide W.K. with effective treatment, and no less restrictive treatment options were appropriate. Dr. Pryatel also stated the benefits of treatment with medication outweigh the known risks, but W.K. refused all medication offered to her.
[¶11] The district court found clear and convincing evidence established W.K. is mentally ill and suffers from schizophrenia. The district court also found that, if not treated, W.K. presents a serious risk of harm to herself because of the substantial likelihood of a substantial deterioration in her physical and mental health. Finally, the district court found the least restrictive form of treatment for W.K. is inpatient hospitalization with medication. Therefore, the district court ordered involuntary hospitalization and treatment, as well as involuntary treatment with medication. The district court committed W.K. to the State Hospital for up to ninety days, allowing the hospital to treat her involuntarily with Risperdal, Invega, or Haloperidol during that time. W.K. now appeals, arguing the district court erred by ordering both involuntary hospitalization and treatment and involuntary treatment with medication.
[¶12] Our review of an appeal under N.D.C.C. ch. 25-03.1 is limited to a review of the procedures, findings, and conclusions of the district court. Interest of D.A., 2005 ND 116, ¶ 11, 698 N.W.2d 474. To balance the competing interests of protecting a mentally ill person and preserving that person's liberty, the district court uses a clear and convincing standard of proof, while we use the more probing clearly erroneous standard of review. Id. A district court's finding of fact is clearly erroneous if it is induced by an erroneous view of the law, if there is no evidence to support it, or if, although there is ...