CERTIORARI TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT.
MR. JUSTICE STONE delivered the opinion of the Court.
Petitioner, a manufacturer of metal castings, brought suit in the District Court for Northern Ohio to recover income and excess profits taxes assessed and paid for the calendar year 1917. Right to recover was asserted on the sole ground that a munitions tax levied under Title III of the Revenue Act of 1916, c. 463, 39 Stat. 756, 780, which became due and was paid by petitioner in 1917, was
correctly deducted from gross income in petitioner's tax return for that year. The Commissioner, rejecting this contention, deducted the tax from gross income for 1916, the year when it accrued, see United States v. Anderson, 269 U.S. 422, and collected a correspondingly increased income and profits tax for 1917, which is involved in the present suit.
The District Court, finding that petitioner kept its books and filed its tax returns for 1916 and 1917 on the "accrual basis," gave judgment for the Collector, 24 F.2d 230, which the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed, 31 F.2d 669. Both courts held, on the authority of United States v. Anderson, supra, that as the books were kept and returns made on the accrual basis, the munitions tax which accrued in 1916 could not be deducted in the return for 1917.
Petitioner's returns for 1916 and 1917 were made after the effective date of §§ 12 (a), 13 (b) and 13 (d) of the Revenue Act of 1916 (c. 463, 39 Stat. 767, 771). The Act imposes a tax on net income and profits ascertained, as provided by § 12 (a), by deducting from gross income expenses, interest and taxes paid, and losses sustained, during the calendar year. Section 13 (d) provides that "A corporation . . . keeping accounts upon any basis other than that of actual receipts and disbursements, unless such other basis does not clearly reflect its income, may, subject to regulations made by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, make its return upon the basis upon which its accounts are kept, in which case the tax shall be computed upon its income as so returned."
Petitioner, in response to an inquiry on the form for the 1916 return, stated that it was "made on the basis of actual receipts and disbursements," a statement which it repeated in the 1917 return with the qualification that "Bills and accounts payable and receivable are treated
as receipts and disbursements." In both returns, bills and accounts, payable and receivable, in fact were treated as actual receipts and disbursements; and both were based on inventories taken at the beginning and end of the taxable year. The munitions tax deducted in the 1917 return first appeared on the taxpayer's books in that year.
Petitioner contends that its returns were made as "cash receipts and disbursements" returns under § 12 (a) and not under § 13 (d), and that since by § 12 (a) taxes are required to be deducted only in the year when paid, its munitions tax was rightly deducted in the 1917 return. In support of this contention, it is pointed out that § 12 (a) of the 1916 Act does not differ materially from corresponding provisions of the Revenue Acts of 1909 and 1913 (Corporation Excise Tax Act of Aug. 5, 1909, c. 6, § 38, 36 Stat. 11, 112; Corporation Income Tax Act of Oct. 3, 1913, c. 16, § II, subdiv. G, 38 Stat. 114, 172), and as petitioner's returns for 1916 and 1917 would have been authorized under these earlier acts, and Treasury Regulations supplementing them, it is argued that petitioner's right to deduct taxes when paid was not altered by the addition to the revenue laws, in the 1916 Act, of § 13 (d), which merely gave to the taxpayer an option, not availed of by petitioner, to make a return on the accrual basis.
This argument is, in substance, that considered and rejected by the Court in United States v. Anderson, supra, p. 439. There, as here, the taxpayer's return for 1917 computed income on the basis of inventories and accrued items, payable and receivable, appearing on the taxpayer's books of account for that year, but deducted from gross income the munitions tax, paid in 1917, which had accrued the year before. The return, as made, would have been permissible under the Revenue Acts ...