ERROR to the Circuit Court of the United States for the Western District of Wisconsin. This was an action of tort brought against the defendants below, who were supervisors of the town of Waldwick, Wis., for neglect of duty in refusing to place upon the tax-list, as required by the statutes of Wisconsin, the amount of two judgments recovered by the plaintiff below against said town. Two questions arose in the case:––
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Mr. Justice Miller delivered the opinion of the court.
First, Whether one of the judgments was properly described in the declaration.
Secondly, Whether the plaintiff was entitled only to recover nominal damages.
To the ruling of the court below on both these points the plaintiff below excepted.
The particulars of the case appear fully in the opinion of the court.
Mr. M. H. Carpenter and Mr. E. Mariner for the plaintiff.
No counsel appeared for the defendants.
The defendants are sued by plaintiff for a failure to perform their duty as supervisors of the town of Waldwick, in the county of Iowa, Wis., in refusing to place upon the tax-list the amount of the judgments recovered by him against that town. By the statutes of Wisconsin, no execution can issue against towns on judgments rendered against them; but the amounts of such judgments are to be placed, by order of the supervisors, on the next tax-list for the annual assessment and collection of taxes; and the amount so levied and collected is to be paid to the judgment creditor, and to no other purpose.
The declaration avers due notice served on the supervisors of these judgments, and demands that they be so placed on the tax-list. The first judgment is described in the declaration as rendered in the Circuit Court for the District of Wisconsin, on the 27th October, 1870, for $708.90; and the notice to the supervisors, set out in the declaration, uses the same language. The other judgment is described as rendered in the Circuit Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, June 10, 1871, for the sum of $1,531.56.
The answer of the defendants denies that there is any such judgment as that first described: and, as to the second judgment, they say, that, after it was rendered, the town of Waldwick was divided, and a part of it organized into the new town of Moscow; that thirty-seven per cent of the judgment was collectible from that town; and that it was not the duty of the defendants to levy the whole judgment on the property of the citizens of Waldwick.
On these issues the parties went to trial before a jury. In support of the issue as to the existence of the first judgment, plaintiffs introduced a copy of a record of a judgment between the same parties for the same amount, and of the same date as that described in the declaration, in the Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin; to which defendants objected, because it varied from the judgment described in the declaration, and in the notice given to defendants to place it on the tax-list. The court sustained the objection, and this ruling is the ground of the first assignment of errors. The argument of counsel on this branch of the case rests mainly on the ground of the sufficiency of the notice to the supervisors. But the question before that is, whether such a judgment was admissible under the pleadings as they stood. There had been for many years a Circuit Court for the District of Wisconsin. Shortly before this judgment was rendered the district was divided into two districts, and the Circuit Courts were by the express language of the act of Congress called the Circuit Court for the Eastern District and the Circuit Court for the Western District respectively. There was no such court in existence at the date of the judgment offered as the Circuit Court for the District of Wisconsin, and the defendants were justified in pleading nul tiel record to a declaration founded on a judgment of that date in that court; and, on this issue as it stood when the record of a judgment in the Circuit Court for the Eastern District was offered, it did not prove a judgment in the Circuit Court for the District of Wisconsin.
If plaintiff had asked leave to amend his declaration by inserting the word eastern before district in his first count, in describing his judgment, it would no doubt have been granted; and the question would then have arisen as to the sufficiency of notice to the supervisors, the notice containing the same mistake: but, on the plea of nul tiel record of a judgment of the Circuit Court for the District of Wisconsin, it is clear a judgment of the Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin is not evidence of such a judgment.
Plaintiff having introduced a record of his judgment for $1,531.56 in the western district of Wisconsin, and notice and demand as to that to the supervisors, the defendants were permitted, as the court said, solely in mitigation of damages, to offer the record of the division of the township, and resolutions of the board, adopted after this suit was brought, directing the town-clerk to place this latter judgment, with its interest, on the tax-list in November, 1872; to which exceptions were taken, and this constitutes the ground of the second and third assignments of error. They will be considered in connection with the fourth and last assignment.
This being all the testimony, plaintiff requested the court to charge the jury that the plaintiff was entitled to recover of the defendants the amount of both these judgments, with interest from their date; and, this being refused, he asked the same instruction as to the second judgment, which was refused. Exceptions were taken to both these ...